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Classes of dangerous goods

Dangerous goods of each class according to their physical and chemical properties, types and degree of hazard during transportation are divided into subclasses, categories and groups as per GOST 19433-88, given below.

  1. Cargo CLASS 1 – Explosive materials which by their nature can explode, cause fire with explosive effect, and devices containing explosives and blasting agents intended to produce pyrotechnic effects;
    • subclass 1.1 — explosive and pyrotechnic substances and articles with a mass explosion hazard where the explosion covers the entire load instantaneously;
    • subclass 1.2 — explosive and pyrotechnic substances and articles not exploding by mass;
    • subclass 1.3 — Explosive and pyrotechnic substances and articles with a risk of ignition, with or without a minor explosive effect;
    • subclass 1.4 — Explosive and pyrotechnic substances and articles presenting little risk of explosion during transport only if ignited or initiated, not causing destruction of devices and packages;
    • subclass 1.5 — explosives with a mass explosion hazard which are so insensitive that initiation or transition from combustion to detonation is unlikely during transport;
    • subclass 1.6 — articles containing exclusively non-detonation-sensitive substances, not detonating in mass and with a low probability of accidental initiation;
  2. Freight transportation CLASS 2 — gases compressed, liquefied by cooling and dissolved under pressure, meeting at least one of the following conditions:
    • absolute vapour pressure at 50°C equals or exceeds 3 kgf/cmÇOHOO kPa);
    • critical temperature below 50C. According to their physical state, gases are divided into:
    • compressed, whose critical temperature is below -10C;
    • liquefied which critical temperature is equal or higher than -10C but lower than 70C;
    • liquefied, whose critical temperature is equal or higher than 70C;
    • dissolved under pressure;
    • liquefied by subcooling;
    • aerosols and compressed gases subject to special regulations.


    • subclass 2.1 — non-flammable gases;
    • subclass 2.2 — non-flammable poisonous gases;
    • subclass 2.3 — flammable gases;
    • subclass 2.4 — flammable poisonous gases;
    • subclass 2.5 — chemically unstable;
    • subclass 2.6 — chemically unstable poisonous.
  3. Freight transportation CLASS 3 — Flammable liquids, liquid mixtures and liquids containing solids in solution or suspension which give off flammable vapours and have a flash point in a closed crucible of 61C or less;
    • subclass 3.1 — Flammable liquids with a low flash point and liquids having a flash point in a closed crucible below minus 18C or having a flash point combined with hazardous properties other than flammability;
    • subclass 3.2 — flammable liquids with an average flash point – liquids with a flash point in a closed crucible of minus 18 to plus 23C;
    • subclass 3.3 — flammable liquids with high flash point – liquids with flash point from 23 to 61C inclusive in a closed crucible.
  4. Freight transportation CLASS 4 — flammable substances and materials (other than those classified as explosive), capable of easily igniting from external ignition sources during transportation, as a result of friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical transformations, as well as during heating;
    • subclass 4.1 — flammable solids, which can be easily ignited by a momentary exposure to external ignition sources (spark, flame or friction) and burn actively;
    • subclass 4.2 — Self-igniting substances which, under normal conditions of transport, may heat up spontaneously and ignite;
    • subclass 4.3 — substances releasing flammable gases in contact with water.
  5. Freight transportationCLASS5 — Oxidising substances and organic peroxides which are capable of readily releasing oxygen, sustaining combustion, and which may, under appropriate conditions or in mixture with other substances, cause self-ignition and explosion;
    • subclass 5.1 — Oxidizing substances, which are not flammable in themselves but contribute to the flammability of other substances and release oxygen during combustion, thereby increasing the intensity of the fire;
    • subclass 5.2 — organic peroxides, which are mostly flammable, can act as oxidizing agents and react dangerously with other substances. Many of them ignite easily and are sensitive to impact and friction.
  6. Freight transportationCLASS 6 — Poisonous and infectious substances capable of causing death, poisoning or illness by ingestion or in contact with skin and mucous membranes;
    • subclass 6.1 — Poisonous (toxic) substances that can cause poisoning by inhalation (vapour, dust), ingestion or skin contact;
    • subclass 6.2 — Substances and materials containing pathogenic microorganisms dangerous for humans and animals.
  7. Freight transportationCLASS 7 — radioactive substances with a specific activity greater than 70 kBq/kg (2 nCi/g).
  8. Freight transportationCLASS 8 — caustic and corrosive substances that cause skin damage, eye and respiratory tract mucosal damage, metal corrosion and damage to vehicles, structures or cargo, and may also cause fire when in contact with organic materials or certain chemicals;
    • subclass 8.1 — Acids,
    • subclass 8.2 — alkalis;
    • subclass 8.3 — Various caustic and corrosive substances.
  9. Freight transportation CLASS 9 — Substances with relatively low transport hazard, not assigned to any of the previous classes, but requiring certain transport and storage regulations to be applied to them;
    • subclass 9.1 — solid and liquid combustible substances and materials which by their properties do not belong to Classes 3 and 4, but under certain conditions may be dangerous in respect of fire (combustible liquids with flash point from +61 C to +100 C in a closed vessel, fibres and other similar materials);
    • subclass 9.2 — substances which become corrosive and corrosive under certain conditions
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